“Turmeric is one of the greatest beneficial medicinal plants in the entire
It’s also one of the most researched medicinal plants in history.”
What is Turmeric and Curcumin?
Turmeric is a member of
the Curcuma botanical group, which is part of the ginger family of
herbs, the Zingiberaceae. The root and rhizome stem of the Curcuma
longa plant is crushed and powdered into ground Turmeric spice. Ground Turmeric is
used worldwide as a seasoning and is the source
of extracted Curcumin.
Curcumin is a natural component of the rhizome of Turmeric
and one of the most studied
phytochemicals in science. Turmeric
contains approximately 3% Curcumin, which is extracted until it is 95% pure to
be researched or supplemented.
the researched properties of Curcumin?
"As of January 2015, there are nearly 5,000 studies and articles on
Curcumin or Turmeric listed in the National Institutes of Health PubMed database" - Fox News, 2015
"Curcumin alone has been subject to more than 1,000 studies in 2014."
- Natural Products Insider, December 2014
"More than 6.000
articles published within the past two decades have discussed the molecular
basis for the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral,
antifungal, and anticancer activities assigned to this nutraceutical.- MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, December 2014
been associated with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiviral, and
antibacterial activities as indicated by over 6,000 citations.
- Cancer Research and Treatment, 2014
"Over 100 clinical trials on curcumin in various chronic conditions, including autoimmune, cardiovascular,
neurological, and psychological diseases, as well as diabetes and cancer."
- Cytokine Research Laboratory, The
University of Texas, December 2014
research over the past 30 years has shown that Curcumin plays an important role in the
prevention and treatment of various pro-inflammatory chronic diseases including
neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, pulmonary, metabolic, autoimmune and
- Cancer Research and Treatment, 2014
"Curcumin is the most widely-studied plant-derived medicinal chemical in
modern science...in 3,000,000 published
scientific studies, Curcumin is the most frequently mentioned phytonutrient."
- NaturalNews.com, 2013
"The list of Curcumin's effects goes on and on, and they're all in your
favor...in addition to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties,
Curcumin has several effects that may work in tandem to protect the brain from
plaques in other ways. "If Curcumin had a single molecular target, it probably
would not be as good a drug," M.D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston. "But
because it has multiple targets, it's very attractive."
- Science News
can I purchase Curcumin?
direct from Turmeric-Curcumin.com, the largest supplier of
supplements at wholesale prices to the general public, research
institutions, physicians, and university medical centers for over
fourteen years. Quality control tests, laboratory analysis
certification, and rigorous
standards all ensure freshness, potency, and purity of content material. Orders are shipped FedEx
or USPS Priority for fast and secure delivery. Contact
for bulk ordering, private
labeling or any other questions. Multiple bottle orders
will receive quantity discounts listed below, 12-bottle case purchases will also
receive free US shipping.
OF Curcumin 95% extract
Health-conscious consumers should be careful in selecting a
Curcumin extract product, specifically knowing the difference between Curcumin
and Turmeric. Consumers may be misled by deceptive labels, believing there is
much more true Curcumin extract in a product than there really is. Some examples of these misleading claims make it
difficult to tell how much active Curcumin extract is actually included, because
they are substituting
Turmeric spice powder,
which averages only 3%
Curcumin by weight.
55(2):126-31. Some examples of these deceptions are:
"Doctors Turmeric Curcumin" on the front of the label,
but checking the ingredient finds that each capsule is 100% Turmeric
(curcuma longa), a common and inexpensive spice found in supermarkets and
"500 mg Enhanced Formula"
but only contains 200 mg Curcumin extract, and the remainder is 300 mg Turmeric
"1000 mg Super Complex Curcumin (25%)" which
is actually only 250
mg of Curcumin extract and the
remaining 750 mg is Turmeric spice.
mg per serving" but one serving size is 4 capsules, 250 mg each.
These deceptions are not uncommon in the
supplement industry, even by the largest vitamin shops. The solution is to
compare. Our label clearly
indicates the contents (Curcumin extracted from Turmeric root), the purity
concentration (95%) and the amount (500mg) for each capsule, not per serving.
Our product contains 500 milligrams per capsule of 95% standardized Curcumin
extract. Our extract is standardized to contain a minimum of 95%
Curcuminoids: Curcumin (C), Demethoxycurcumin (DMC),
Bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) - the complete range in their natural composition ratio of
76:19:5. Thus, in our
product the full
spectrum of Curcumin antioxidant Curcuminoids are extracted from
(Curcuma longa root) and
represented in their
natural arrangement for maximum potency.
This is the
in clinical trials and medical studies,
free of added chemicals, 'enhancements', or treatments. Unlike
many antioxidants, Curcumin is capable of both preventing free radical
formation, as well as neutralizing existing free radicals, and is considered an
effective bioprotectant due to this dual activity. We supply the purest
available, standardized to minimum 95% extract.There is no claimed "enhancing" material to fill
the capsule up and lower the Curcumin
Our product contains no sugars or
other sweeteners, no artificial colors or flavors, no sodium, no soy,
no yeast, no wheat, no gluten, no dairy, no preservatives, no black pepper
extract or "bioperine" (actually a trademark of Piper nigrum by the Sabinsa
corporation), no GMO, no dyes, no gums.
200 capsules per bottle.
For the environment as well as your finances, we
don't require purchasing two or three bottles to obtain 200 capsules. Each bottle
contains the full 200 capsules, with every 12-bottle case
totaling over two and a half
pounds of pure Curcumin extract. The
suggested serving size is one (1) to four (4) capsules with each meal, preferably with beneficial oils and fats, potentially offsetting the inflammatory response
process that occurs during ingestion and digestion.
Are there any side effects or
interactions related to
Curcumin or Turmeric?
Turmeric has been used in
large quantities as a condiment for thousands of years with no adverse reactions. The
US FDA classifies Turmeric as
Recognized As Safe). Pregnant women, individuals with gallstones or using blood
thinners should consult a health care provider before using herbs or dietary
supplements in amounts greater than usually found in foods.
"Curcumin is not toxic to humans up to 8,000 mg/day."-
Phase I Clinical Trial of Curcumin,
Anticancer Res. 21(4B):2895-900.
received 8 g curcumin by mouth daily...No toxicities were observed."
- Phase II ClinicalTrial of Curcumin, Clin
Cancer Res. 14(14):4491-9.
"Curcumin, even in large quantities, does not produce any
known side effects in humans."
Has the absorption of ORAL Curcumin
95% DELIVERY been studied?
In most studies
Curcumin 95% has been delivered orally whether the subject is human or animals. This
orally delivered Curcumin 95% extract showed several biological effects such as antioxidant,
anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and anticancer
beneficial effects in several types of cancer in patients.
6.0 g daily during radiotherapy, reduced the severity of radiation
dermatitis in breast cancer patients." - Radiat Res. 2013
administered orally in mice attenuate oxidative stress following downhill
running-induced muscle damage" - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013
of 90 mg of curcumin or the placebo 2 hours before exercise and immediately
after exercise. Curcumin supplementation attenuated exercise-induced oxidative
stress by increasing blood antioxidant capacity." - Int J Sports Med.
In animal oral
administration, Curcumin inhibited
head and neck
lymphomas, leukemias, and
adenomatous polyposis. - Cancer Res Treat. 2014
"Oral treatment of
curcumin found to effective in diabetic condtion. It attenuated high fat
diet-induced glucose intolerance and elevations of oxidative stress in the
skeletal muscle." - World J Diabetes. 2012
wound repair in diabetic impaired healing in mice." - Wound Repair
the peripheral neuropathy of R98C mice by alleviating endoplasmic reticulum
stress, reducing the activation of unfolded protein response and promoting
Schwann cell differentiation." - Brain. 2012
against the pulmonary and cardiovascular effects in mice." - PLoS
bioavailability of Curcumin 95% EXTRACT been studied?
"In a human clinical
trial, 3.6 g of Curcumin via oral route was found to produce a plasma curcumin
level of 11.1 nmol/L after an hour of dosing." - Clin Cancer Research
"The average peak serum concentrations after taking
4,000 mg, 6,000 mg and 8,000 mg of curcumin were 0.51 microM, 0.63 microM and
1.77 microM, respectively."
Phase I Clinical Trial of Curcumin,
"Traces of curcumin
were detected in the plasma. Its concentration in the small intestinal mucosa,
between 39 and 240 nmol/g of tissue, reflects differences in dietary
concentration...The comparison of dose, resulting curcumin levels in the
intestinal tract, and chemopreventive potency suggests tentatively that a daily
dose of 1.6 g of curcumin is required for efficacy in humans." -
"One hour after administration, the levels of curcumin in the intestines,
spleen, liver, and kidneys were 177.04, 26.06, 26.90, and 7.51 microg/g,
respectively." - Journal Drug Metab Dispos
"Rats were given
oral curcumin (340 mg/kg) and after 2 hours tissue distribution was
measured. Curcumin was found in plasma (16.1 ng/mL), urine (2.0 ng/mL),
intestinal mucosa (1.4 mg/g), liver (3,671.8 ng/g), kidney (206.8 ng/g), and
heart (807.6 ng/g)." - Journal Agric Food Chem
administration of 400 mg Curcumin to rats, about 60% of the dose was
absorbed." - Journal Toxicology.
distribution of Curcumin using tritium-labeled drug. They found that
radioactivity was detectable in blood, liver, and kidney following doses of
400, 80, or 10 mg of [3H] curcumin. With 400 mg, considerable
amount of radio labeled products were present in tissues 12 days after
dosing. The percentage of curcumin absorbed (60-66% of the given dose)
remained constant." - Journal Toxicology
the studied pharmacological actions of Curcumin?
colon cancer (37),
prostate cancer (36),
breast cancer (34),
Pulmonary fibrosis (33),
Squamous cell carcinoma (33),
Liver damage (32),
Colorectal cancer (32),
Gastric cancer (32),
Proteasome Inhibitors (31),
spinal cord (31),
Periodontal disease (30),
Insulin Resistance (30),
Multiple myeloma (30),
Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors (30).
Helicobacter pylori infection (30),
Cervical tumor (30),
Diabetic nephropathy (29),
Herpes simplex (29),
Telomerase Inhibition (29),
Cell cycle arrest (29),
Bladder tumor (29),
Caspase-3 Activation (29),
hepatic injury (29),
Parkinson's disease (28),
Inflammatory Bowel Disease (28),
Chronic Renal Failure (28),
cervical cancer (28),
Human papillomavirus (28),
NF-kappaB Inhibitor (28),
Hepatocellular carcinoma (27),
cystic fibrosis (27),
Immune system (27),
Mesenteric Ischemia (26),
chronic fatigue (26),
Hepatitis C (26),
Diabetic retinopathy (26),
Hodgkin's lymphoma (25),
Ulcerative colitis (25),
Bile duct cancer (25),
Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (24),
liver disease (23),
Ewing's sarcoma (23),
Hepatitis B (22),
Leptin resistance (17)
How may Curcumin work against cancer?
on Curcumin and Cancer. Independent research studies on suggest that Curcumin has the potential for
treatment of cancers including colon, breast, prostate, lung, skin and bowel. Curcumin is one of the most powerful and promising chemopreventive and
anticancer agents, and epidemiological evidence demonstrates that people who
incorporate high doses of this spice in their diets have a lower incidence of
cancer. Curcumin's epigenetic modulation has been studied by the US National Cancer Institute (NCI) and academic
investigators around the world. Because of low
toxicity and great efficacy in multiple in vitro and in vivo cancer models, Curcumin was selected for further development, put through extensive toxicology
testing and has successively made it through the first stages (Phase I) of
clinical testing abroad and is currently in clinical trials at several sites in
the U.S. Numerous mechanisms have been
described for the anticancer activity of Curcumin. Researchers at M.D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, TX state that Curcumin
has “enormous” potential to prevent and treat cancer. Curcumin was able to
suppress tumor formation, growth, and even metastasis according to their review.
Currently, there are clinical trials being conducted on the effects of Curcumin
on patients with bowel cancer. Inhibition of proliferation
of tumor cells, induction of apoptosis (a mode of cell death), inhibition of
transformation of cells from normal to tumor, inhibition of invasion and
metastasis and suppression of inflammation have been linked with the
activity of Curcumin. Down-regulation of COX2, 5-LOX, adhesion molecules,
inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, growth factor receptors, vascular
endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and transcription factors by Curcumin have been
linked to its antitumor activity. Curcumin also has been studied with
the core inflammatory gene signal, NF-kappaB,resulting in a beneficial domino effect throughout the body. One benefit of this
domino effect is a direct reduction in the risk of cancer from
How may Curcumin work against
Arthritis is also a proinflammatory
disease. All current drugs approved for arthritis have anti-inflammatory
activity. Anti-TNF (tumor necrosis factor) therapy has been approved for this
disease. Curcumin has been shown to both suppress the TNF production, block
the action of TNF, and have
activity against arthritis.
When inflammation is reduced, the added benefit is
pain relief. A double-blind, crossover study showed that Curcumin may be effective
in relieving pain and improvements in morning stiffness, walking time, and joint
How may Curcumin work against
Crohn's disease and Ulcerative Colitis?
Crohn’s disease is also a pro-inflammatory disease. All current drugs approved
for this disease have anti-inflammatory activity. Anti-TNF therapy has been
approved for this disease. Curcumin has been shown to both suppress the TNF
production and the TNF action. Curcumin taken orally has been shown to have
activity against inflammatory bowel disease. Study results
suggest that Curcumin could have a protective role in ulcerative colitis via
regulation of oxidant/anti-oxidant balance and modulation of the release of some
inflammatory endocoids, namely TNF-alpha and NO. The development of DSS-induced
colitis was significantly attenuated by curcumin. Inhibition of p38 MAPK
signaling by curcumin could explain the reduced COX-2 and iNOS immunosignals and
the nitrite production in colonic mucosa, reducing the development of chronic
experimental colitis. In addition, Curcumin seems promising with regards to remission in patients with quiescent Ulcerative
How may Curcumin work against
Curcumin acts directly on liver cells to help
prevent them from becoming fatty, and studies have concluded that Curcumin may
have an anti-diabetic effect by decreasing serum fatty acid through the
promotion of fatty acid oxidation and utilization. Curcumin also works directly on pancreatic beta cells
to help them produce insulin normally. By helping the liver and the pancreas,
Curcumin is taking stress off the two most important organs whose function
declines before the onset of type 2 diabetes. Curcumin also influences key
hormones, supports major body organs, and regulates inflammatory signaling all
in ways that help correct or prevent metabolic problems. Curcumin helps lower
inappropriately high levels of leptin (reducing leptin resistance) while
boosting the all-important levels of the adiponectin
(which lowers insulin resistance). Curcumin also helps activate the fat-burning
gene signal PPAR gamma, which also helps to make more new, metabolically-fit fat
cells. Curcumin directly reduces major inflammatory events from occurring inside
white adipose tissue (tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6, and monocyte
chemotactic protein-1). By lowering such inflammation, the source of
overweight-induced disease is targeted.
How may Curcumin work against obesity AND metabolic syndrome?
In the prevention and treatment of obesity and metabolic
syndrome, Curcumin has been reported to modulate numerous targets that have been
linked to obesity and insulin resistance. 1) Curcumin has been shown to downregulate the expression of TNF in various tissues.
2) Curcumin can suppress NF-κB activation induced
by a wide variety of inflammatory agents through inhibition of degradation of
IκBα. 3) Curcumin can inhibit the activation of IKK linked to the activation
of NF-κB, and this leads to the suppression of expression of inflammatory
biomarkers such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and vascular endothelial growth
factor. 4) Curcumin has been shown to downregulate the expression of
various NF-κB-regulated proinflammatory adipocytokines including chemokines
(such as MCP-1, MCP-4, and eotaxin) (199)
and interleukins (IL-1, IL-6, and IL-8). Curcumin also suppressed the expression
of plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 through the inhibition of the
transcription factor early growth response (Egr)-1 gene product that has been
closely linked with insulin resistance and obesity. 5) Curcumin has been reported
to mimic most antidiabetic drugs in that it activates PPAR-γ in hepatic stellate
cells. 6) Curcumin has been shown to downregulate activation of
c-Jun NH2 terminal kinase. 7) Curcumin has been shown to inhibit the Wnt/β-catenin
pathway, which is closely linked to obesity. Later studies have indicated that
Curcumin inhibits Wnt pathway signaling through downregulation of the
transcription coactivator p300. Another potential mechanism by which Curcumin
could inhibit β-catenin signaling is through inhibition of glycogen synthase
kinase (GSK)-3β, which directly causes the phosphorylation of β-catenin.
Curcumin was found to inhibit GSK-3β with as little as 66 nM IC50 (32).
8) Curcumin has been shown to induce the expression of hemeoxygenase (HO)-1
through the activation of Nrf2 in pancreatic cells and thus mediate the survival
of these cells. 9) Curcumin downregulates the secretion of insulin-like growth
factor-1 but induces the expression of insulin-like growth factor binding
protein-3. 10) Curcumin interrupts leptin signaling
by reducing phosphorylation levels of the leptin receptor (Ob-R) and its
downstream targets. 11) Curcumin suppresses gene expression of Ob-R in
HSCs. 12) Curcumin has been reported to increase the expression of
adiponectin, which negatively controls obesity.
How may Curcumin work against psoriasis?
Psoriasis is another pro-inflammatory
disease. Considerable evidence, both in animals and humans, indicates that Curcumin
may be effective against psoriasis.
How may Curcumin work against Alzheimer's
Researchers found that Curcumin
not only reduces oxidative damage and inflammation, but also
reduces amyloid accumulation and synaptic marker loss and promotes amyloid
phagocytosis and clearance. Curcumin worked to prevent synaptic marker and
cognitive deficits caused by amyloid peptide infusion and abeta oligomer
toxicity in vitro, and may help the immune system clear the
brain of amyloid beta, which forms the plaques found in Alzheimer's disease. Clinical trials are in progress at UCLA with Curcumin
for Alzheimer's. In the
Alzheimer’s Disease Anti-Inflammatory Prevention Trial, researched showed that
reducing inflammation has positive effects on patients with Alzheimer’s.
Curcumin significantly lowered several inflammation markers, in addition to
reducing plaque on the brain (a sign of Alzheimer’s) by 43 to 50 percent.
there are over 1000 published animal and human studies, both in vivo and in
vitro in which the effects of curcumin on various diseases have been examined.
Studies include epidemiological, basic and clinical research on AD." - Acad
Neurol. 2008 Jan-Mar; 11(1): 13–19. The effect of curcumin (turmeric) on
Alzheimer's disease: An overview
How may Curcumin work
as an Anti-inflammatory?
Turmeric is safe and non-toxic and
has been studied for anti-inflammatory properties, inhibiting various molecules that
contribute to inflammation such as lipooxygenase, COX-2, leukotrienes,
prostaglandins, nitric oxide, interferon-inducible protein, tumor necrosis
factor (TNF), and interleukin-12 (IL-12). One study compared the
effectiveness of Curcumin – the active ingredient in turmeric – and a popular
non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) called phenylbutazone. At the end
of the six days, those taking the Curcumin and the NSAID enjoyed a significantly
better anti-inflammatory response than placebo. The spice worked as well as the
drug, but without the negative side effects.
"Because of the crucial role of inflammation in most chronic diseases, the
potential of Curcumin
has been examined in neoplastic, neurological, cardiovascular, pulmonary and
metabolic diseases. The pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of
have been examined in animals and in humans." - Trends Pharmacol Sci.
2009 Feb;30(2):85-94. Pharmacological basis for the role of curcumin in chronic
diseases: an age-old spice with modern targets.
What are the chemical properties of Curcumin?
A β-diketone that is methane in which two of the hydrogens are substituted by feruloyl groups
Bright yellow-orange powder
183 °C, 361 °F
Organic Chemicals / Hydrocarbons / Aromatic
Compounds / Phenols / Catechols / Curcuminoids
Chemical Structure 3D||
Tracheobionta (Vascular plants)
Spermatophyta (Seed plants)
Magnoliophyta (Flowering plants)
Zingiberaceae (Ginger family)
Curcuma longa (Turmeric)
Why Turmeric root extract Curcumin may provide health benefits?
Certain plants manufacture chemicals
that repel predators, parasites and diseases. Like most of these pharmacologically-active metabolites, Curcumin is involved in self-defense. Over time, plants with higher levels of
organic compounds that deter attackers become more successful, because of their
advanced protection. In nature's never-ending interaction between predator and prey,
insects evolve the ability to digest plant toxins, while plants evolve stronger chemicals to deter their enemies. Monitoring
this evolution between plants and insects represents an important field of
ecological research. Scientists have discovered that many phytochemicals manufactured
in plants and roots not only prevent insect attack or fight plant infections, but also provide
human health benefits.
Many cultures create their own botanical pharmacies as
the lore of medicinal plants and remedies is handed down through generations of
healers. With the advent
of sophisticated laboratory testing, biologists are finding that the many
indigenous plants and roots from around the world provide medicinal
value, and their metabolites are candidates for research. Curcumin’s structure is similar to other natural polyphenolics (chemicals containing
multiple "phenol" groups) produced by
plants in response to infectious attack. These natural polyphenols often have potent
anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties as well as immune support health
benefits. Curcumin from Turmeric, resveratrol from grapes, pterostilbene from
blueberries, and catechins from green tea all contain polyphenolic antioxidants and have been
studied for medicinal or preventive value. Curcumin has been
studied for anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory,
antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, and anticancer activities, mediated
through the regulation of various transcription factors, growth factors,
inflammatory cytokines, protein kinases, and other enzymes. Curcumin exhibits
activities similar to recently discovered TNF blockers (humira, remicade and
enbrel), vascular endothelial cell growth factor blocker (avastin), human
epidermal growth factor receptor blockers (erbitux, erlotinib, and geftinib),
and HER2 blocker (herceptin). Considering the recent scientific bandwagon that
multi-targeted therapy is better than mono-targeted therapy for most diseases,
Curcumin is a phytonutrient that can be considered an ideal "Spice for Life". More than 5000
papers published within the past two decades have revealed that Curcumin has
extraordinary potential in promoting health through modulation of numerous molecular
What is the history of Curcumin and Turmeric?
Turmeric is an ancient spice and a traditional remedy.
It has been used in food and as medicine for at least 4,000 years, first in
India (Ayuverdic) and other parts of Asia, and later in Africa and the
Caribbean. Researchers in India recently identified mineral remnants of
turmeric and ginger on the cooking pots of ancient Indus River remains, one
of the first urban civilizations.These ancient
civilizations have vast trial and error experience with many different herbal
remedies and food preparations and they selected Curcumin as a food additive and
major tool for medicinal use based on efficacy. Numerous therapeutic
activities have been assigned to Turmeric for a wide variety of diseases and
conditions, including those of the skin, pulmonary, and gastro-intestinal
systems, aches, pains, wounds and disorders. Marco Polo, writing of his travels in China, described
Turmeric in the 13th century:
is also a vegetable which has all the properties of the true saffron, as well as
the color, and yet it is not really saffron. Turmeric
is held in great estimation, and being an ingredient in all their dishes, it
bears, on that account, a high price." The high degree of reverence
established by the fact
that it is used in many cultures, each having its own name for the
fa nwin. Chinese: wong geung fun, yüchiu. Danish: gurkemeje. Dutch:
geelwortel. Finnish: keltajuuri. French: curcuma, saffron des Indes. German:
gelbwurz, kurkuma. Icelandic: turmerik. Italian: curcuma tumeric Indian:
haldee, haridra, haldi, huldee, huldie. Indonesian: kunjit, kunyit.
Japanese: ukon circumin Malay: kunjit. Norwegian: gurkemeie, Polish: klacze
kurkumy. Portuguese: açafrão-da-Índia. Russian: zholtymbir. Spanish:
azafrán de la India, azafran arabe. Sinhalese: kaha. Swedish: gurkmeja.
Tamil: munjal. Thai: ka min. Vietnamese: botnghe
the pharmaceutical industry patented Curcumin?
corporations tried registering patents for Curcumin and
Turmeric because of the much heralded scientific
evidence and the long history of its healing properties. However, that same
evidence and history of
Curcumin being used medicinally for centuries was the reason the United
States Patent and Trademark Office rejected and revoked the rights
for Turmeric patent 5401504
on the grounds that the claims were
not new: "USPTO
unequivocally rejected all six claims made on August 13, 2001 ruling that Turmeric's
medicinal properties were not patentable." University of Texas MD
Anderson Cancer Center states "in
the case of Curcumin, a natural compound, no company can reap the benefits if
Turmeric shows itself to be an effective anti-cancer drug." This
loss to Big Pharma is a gain for educated
Recent news and published studies on Curcumin and Turmeric
The Possible Disease-Fighter in Your Spice Rack:
The Many Benefits of Turmeric and Curcumin
regulates cell fate and metabolism by inhibiting hedgehog signaling in
hepatic stellate ...
Researchers have found that turmeric
and curcumin fights the disease on a number of
different levels. In a study published in the journal Clinical
Cancer Research, scientists analyzed the saliva of people with
head and neck cancers before and after they chewed curcumin
tablets. They found that the compound suppressed two
cell-signaling pathways known to stimulate the growth of these
cancers. Meanwhile, other laboratory research reveals that
curcumin reduces the activity of epidermal
growth factor receptors, which play a role in the spread of
breast, prostate, and lung cancers. By blocking these receptors,
proteins responsible for the proliferation cancerous cells
aren't able to activate, thereby slowing the growth of tumors
and the disease.
In a review of research published in the
AAPS Journal, Jayaraj Ravindran, Ph.D., a researcher from MD
Anderson Cancer Center in Houston writes, "Our review shows that
curcumin can kill a wide variety of cancer
cells through diverse mechanisms." A growing stack of
research indicates that curcumin can encourage apoptosis, or the
death of cancerous cells, which can prevent the growth of
cancerous tumors in the body. Curcumin binds to
more than 30 different proteins, which may block cancer cells
from transmitting factors important for their growth and
activate pathways that lead to their death. What's more,
Ravindran and his team identified more than 40 biomolecules
involved with cell death that are influenced by curcumin.
Because curcumin fights cancer on so many
different levels, it's able to outsmart the disease and prevent
cancer cells from developing a resistance to treatment -- a
common problem for cancer researchers. As Ravindran writes in
his review, "Because of the numerous mechanisms of cell death
employed by cucurmin, it is possible that cells
may not develop resistance to curcumin-induced cell death."
In another review of research on curcumin,
researcher Muthu K. Shanmugam, Ph.D., of the Yong Loo Lin School
of Medicine at the National University of Singapore, agrees: "A
plethora of in vitro and in vivo research together with clinical
trials conducted over the past few decades substantiate the
potential of curcumin as an anti-cancer agent ... Clinical
trials with curcumin indicate safety,
tolerability, non-toxicity (even up to doses of 8,000 milligrams
per day), and efficacy."
curcumin and bicalutamide enhanced the
growth inhibition of androgen ...
We previously reported that
has potent antifibrotic effects in vivo and in vitro, but the
underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated.
Research is confirming benefits of
and bicalutamide enhanced the growth inhibition of
androgen-independent prostate cancer cells...
May Help Fight Oral and Cervical Cancer
Among its active ingredients is
which is being actively studied for its anti-inflammatory,
antioxidant, antimicrobial and cancer-fighting .
Study Finds Turmeric Can Help Treat Oral Cancers
According to Mishra, the natural
antioxidant and the key ingredient of turmeric,
has the cancer-fighting properties. The research has claimed .
Alternative Therapies to Prevent Diabetes
An antioxidant present in turmeric,
has proven effective for the treatment of the human
papillomavirus. (Simon A. Eugster/Wikipedia ..
The Arthritis Foundation Has Identified 9
Supplements for Arthritis Symptoms
the substance in turmeric spice that gives Indian curry its
distinctive yellow color, is an anti-inflammatory that bestows
many health benefits
Which foods are known to reduce bowel cancer
supplements are very popular among arthritis patients.
is an active ingredient of the medicinal spice turmeric and is
known for its ...
Relieve inflammation the natural way
is the substance found in turmeric that gives the spice its
unmistakable yellow colour.
Curcumin is a known
anti-inflammatory, and it may ...
Turmeric Can Fight Oral And Cervical Cancer, Says
supplements are available, though some healthcare experts
recommend whole turmeric over the isolated form of
Circadian Responses to Chemo
According to a study published in the
journal E Cancer Medical Science, an antioxidant found in
turmeric called curcumin
– an active ingredient in the ...
curcumin -- turmeric offers potential
therapy for oral cancers
a component of the spice turmeric, is known to have anti-cancer
properties, and researchers are testing it out as a potential
turmeric can heal muscle injuries, reveals new study
One of the herb's key active
ingredients - an antioxidant called
- appears to have a quelling effect on the activity of human
Try turmeric today
Scientist have found that the
household curry spice curcumin,
a member of the ginger family can help players recover from
muscle injuries and ...
Turmeric a golden addition
This is because it contains something
which has multiple benefits. So with this in mind, we are taking
a look at just some of the ways ...
Curry spice to overcome aches and sore muscles
It is thought that the
properties found in turmeric are responsible for the
anti-inflammatory, anti-parasitic, anticancer and antiseptic
MIND Protocol: Lifestyle Plan Beats Alzheimer's
Doctors based at the Olympic Training
Centre, in Barcelona, Spain, have been testing a new formulation
a member of the ginger family ...
"Alzheimer's is 70 percent less
common in India than in the U.S., likely because of the large
amounts of curcumin
that are used in curries and other ...
The Spice That May Help Fight Breast Cancer
A: There are more than 7,500
scientific publications on
curcumin, but much of the
research for human health is still preliminary.
has been ...
curcumin may boost brain DHA: Study
Exciting new research released in the
journal Clinical and Experiential Medicine found that
a naturally-occurring substance found in the ...
One of the Best Antibiotics Could Be in Your
Increased intake of
could boost levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the brain by
enhancing its conversion from other omega-3 ...
may be promising treatment for cancer
Dozens of studies have revealed many clinical benefits
associated with curcumin. They include antioxidant properties,
anti-inflammatory activity and protection against chronic
diseases such as diabetes and cancer. The molecule also has
antimicrobial activity and is effective against bacteria,
viruses, and even fungi. For anyone looking for an antibiotic
alternative, this particular chemical is a potential golden
The life in your spice – the health benefits of
a compound found in turmeric, may be a promising treatment for a
variety of cancers and other inflammatory diseases, according to
Spice Proves Effective Against Cancer
Another star in the spice rack is
turmeric, which contains
curcumin, a compound now being
studied for its potential to prevent cancer and Alzheimer's ...
proved effective at combating cancer
A new study has found that
a chemical compound found in turmeric, is a safe and promising
treatment for most cancers and other ...
WA SCIENTISTS have helped re-affirm that curcumin
chemical compound found in turmeric, is a safe and promising
treatment for most cancers and ...
Topical Application of Turmeric
In my video, Turmeric Curcumin
Cancer, I talked about a study where researchers
showed that, by taking curcumin
, the yellow
The Spice that Stops
Muscle Pain in its Tracks
Exciting new research in the Journal of
the International Society for Sports
Medicine found that curcumin
of the active ingredients in the
Curcumin and Colon Cancer
The Spice that May Help Fight Breast Cancer
The low incidence of bowel cancer in
India is often attributed to natural antioxidants such as
the yellow pigment in the spice turmeric, used ...
4 Natural Supplements That Are as Powerful as
Both turmeric and
supplements are readily available in most health food stores or
from your natural health professional.
Turmeric May Reduce Brain Damage, Ease Memories
in Alzheimer's, PTSD
are two natural supplements that boost your immune health. ...
fights inflammation at the molecular level by blocking an ...
These Are The Only 3 Supplements I'll Take
The substance, called
may be helpful in treating Alzheimer's disease and various
psychological conditions that stem from fearful memories.
About three years ago, I began to notice all the studies
reporting the broad, well-documented potential of
the active ingredient
Aussie researchers trial turmeric for Alzheimer's
A study at Baylor University found
the main compound in the spice turmeric, worked as well as the
popular antidepressant Prozac.
Sydney researchers are using brain
amyloid imaging to test the effects of
– the active ingredient of the spice turmeric
6 foods that help fight cancer
Cosmopolitan February 2015
This popular curry spice contains an active
compound called curcumin (it's what gives turmeric its bright yellow-orange
colour) which has been shown to display powerful anti-cancer activity. In
fact, curcumin has the most evidence-based literature supporting its use
against cancer of any nutrient. Professor Bharat Aggarwal, from the MD
Anderson Cancer Center in Texas goes as far as saying, "No cancer has been
found, to my knowledge, which is not affected by curcumin." Pretty powerful
Turmenic Can Erase Bad Memories And Fight Mental
Wall Street OTC February 2015
The research stated
that an ingredient found in turmenic, called curcumin is involved in the
process of both helping the printing of the new fears a person is dealing
with and also at erasing existent negative memories. This new discovery,
might come in the help of researchers for developing treatments for people
suffering from mental disorders.
Turmeric: The New Superfood
Inquisitr.com February 2015
Curcumin (not related to cumin) is an
antioxidant and the active ingredient in turmeric. Although it is
continuously being studied, curcumin has been shown to inhibit several types
of cancer cells. According to the American Cancer Society, turmeric is
mostly used as an anti-inflammatory herbal remedy, with fewer side effects
than common pain relievers.
Top Herbs, Latest Research
naturalproductsinsider.com February 2015
Curcumin has sparked a variety
of scientific exploration into new areas, as research has recently indicated
the compound can boost levels of the omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in
the brain, where it can positively affect cognitive health. Also, drug
discovery scientists have focused on novel analogs of curcumin in an effort
to find compounds that have similar health benefits and overcome some of the
absorption and stability challenges with the herb.
Turmeric Beneficial for
A recent study showed that curcumin encourages the immune
system to send macrophages to the brain. A clinical trial was performed that
involved people with severe cognitive decline to test the effects of
curcumin. The results showed that participants taking curcumin had
significantly higher levels of dissolved abnormal proteins in their blood
compared to those in the placebo group. This study showed that curcumin has
the ability to effectively pass into the brain, bind to beta-amyloid plaques
and assist the body in their breakdown. Curcumin is one of the only
substances known to have such a profound protective effect on the brain.
Curcumin: This compound
in turmeric can boost your heart health
TheStar.com February 2015
Adding spice – in the form of curcumin
supplements – to the daily diets of people with risk factors for heart
disease may lower inflammation, a new study suggests.
Effect of curcuminoids
on oxidative stress: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized
Sciencedirect.com February 2015
This meta-analysis showed a significant
effect of curcuminoids in elevating serum SOD and catalase activities, GSH
concentrations, and reduction of serum lipid peroxides.
Effect of curcumin supplementation on
physiological fatigue and physical performance in mice
Nutrients. February 2015
Curcumin is a well-known phytocompound and food
component found in the spice turmeric and has multifunctional
bioactivities....Curcumin supplementation may have a wide spectrum of
bioactivities for promoting health, improving exercise performance and
Beneficial for Brain Health
NewsWire.net, February 2015
A recent study showed that curcumin encourages the immune system to send
macrophages to the brain. A clinical trial was performed that involved people
with severe cognitive decline to test the effects of curcumin. The results
showed that participants taking curcumin had significantly higher levels of
dissolved abnormal proteins in their blood compared to those in the placebo
group. This study showed that curcumin has the ability to effectively pass into
the brain, bind to beta-amyloid plaques and assist the body in their breakdown.
Curcumin is one of the only substances known to have such a profound protective
effect on the brain
linked to improved memory
The Guardian, February 2015
Curcumin, a bright-yellow compound found in the root of the Indian spice
turmeric, prevented new fear memories being stored in the brain, and also
removed pre-existing fear memories, researchers found.
prevented new fear memories being stored in the brain and removed pre-existing
Mail Online, February 2015
Curcumin is known to have an anti-inflammatory effect on the body, and this may
be how it works on fearful memories, said Professor Schafe.‘Inflammatory
processes have been implicated in a wide range of diseases ranging from
allergies to cardiovascular disease to Alzheimer’s,’ he said.‘Inflammation has
also been implicated in psychological disorders such as depression, anxiety and
post-traumatic stress disorder.‘Some of these same inflammatory pathways have
also been implicated in memory formation, so it all fits.
ability to fight Alzheimer's studied
Science Daily, January 2015
Curcumin, a natural product found in the spice turmeric, has been used by many
Asian cultures for centuries, and a new study indicates a close chemical analog
of curcumin has properties that may make it useful as a treatment for the brain
disease. “Curcumin has demonstrated ability to enter the brain, bind and destroy
the beta-amyloid plaques present in Alzheimer’s with reduced toxicity,” said
Wellington Pham, Ph.D., assistant professor of Radiology and Radiological
Sciences and Biomedical Engineering at Vanderbilt and senior author of the
study, published recently in the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease.
Ingredient That Can Block Bad Memories
Time Magazine, January 2015
Curcumin, a compound found in turmeric that may have protective effects against
neurodegenerative diseases, might one day help those with PTSD let go of bad
memories, suggests a new rat study published in the journal
Disease with Turmeric – It’s Just as Effective as Exercise and
The Raw Food World, January 2015
One study found that curcumin contains anti-thrombotic, anti-proliferative, and
anti-inflammatory effects and can decrease the serum cholesterol level and
protect against atherosclerosis. Several studies show the major benefit of
curcumin for heart disease is improving the endothelium function in the lining
of the blood vessels. Endothelium dysfunction is the main cause of heart disease
and causes the endothelium to inefficiently regulate blood pressure, blood
clotting, and other factors. Not only did curcumin help endothelial function,
but also one study found that it’s just as effective as exercise.In addition,
another study showed that it works just as well as the drug Atorvastatin. One
study showed that 121 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass surgery were
randomized to ingest either 4 grams of curcumin per day, a few days before and
after the surgery, or a placebo. The results show that the group who ingested
curcumin had a 65% decreased risk of experiencing heart attack whilst in the
hospital. The authors state, “The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of
curcuminoids may account for their cardioprotective effects shown in this
Rheumatoid Arthritis with the Natural Healing Effects of Turmeric
The Raw Food World, January 2015
Curcumin is used to treat everything from skin and stomach ailments to
infections and inflammations. Other research shows curcumin helps reduce
Alzheimer’s. Now modern researchers have been intrigued enough to put turmeric’s
many historical benefits to the test – even rheumatoid arthritis.
associated with fewer neural tube defects in mice
2minutemedicine, January 2015
In the present work, authors investigate the impact of curcumin, a substance
found in the turmeric plant, on NTDs and markers of oxidative stress in mouse
embryos cultured in normal and high glucose environments. They found that
embryos cultured in high glucose environments and treated with 20μM curcumin
were less likely to experience oxidative stress and develop NTDs.
turmeric fights BP, diabetes: Study
Times of India, January 2015
The health benefits of turmeric are due to the presence of a yellow compound
named curcumin. This compound is especially beneficial for fighting high blood
pressure. Remarkably, this compound is not only helpful in regulating blood
pressure but also effective in treating several late complications of diabetes
like affecting eyes, blood vessels, kidney and brain.
Kitchen Item Could Cure All Your Fears And Bad Memories
Carbonated.tv January 2015
Curcumin (a compound found in turmeric) has been found to possess the power to
impair newly acquired and reactivated fear memories. The spice is vastly
acknowledged for its medicinal properties, and contains anti-inflammatory bodies
which are known to help with arthritis and stomach issues, among many other
Interventions to Keep Your Eyesight Sharp as You Age
The Raw Food World, January 2015
Curcumin, found in turmeric, contains a high amount of therapeutic
polyphenol and is the reason for its golden color. Turns out that curcumin is
able to protect against cataracts forming. (2) One study shows that curcumin had
the potential to function as an anticataractogenic agent, which could possibly
prevent the accumulation of calcium in the eye lens. (6) Another study showed
the antioxidant effects of curcumin that appears to prevent oxidative damage and
major depression: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
Neuropsychopharmacology. December 2014
Curcumin supplementation influences several biomarkers that may be associated
with its antidepressant mechanisms of action. Plasma concentrations of leptin
and endothelin-1 seem to have particular relevance to treatment outcome.
inhibits proliferation of gastric cancer cells
World Journal of Surgical Oncology December 2014
Curcumin incubation significantly induced loss of MMP in SGC-7901 cells in a
dose- dependent manner (P <0.05); the cell apoptotic rate also dramatically
increased after curcumin incubation in a dose-dependent manner (P <0.05).
inhibit leptin gene expression and secretion in breast cancer cells
Cancer Cell International December 2014
Curcumin inhibits the expression and secretion of leptin and it could probably
be used as a drug candidate for the breast cancer therapy through the leptin
targeting in the future.
curry are spice superstars
Harold-Review.com December 2014
More than 900 published research papers pertaining to curcumin’s anticancer
activity. One of these papers found that curcumin has the ability to make some
cancer cells commit suicide.
restores mitochondrial functions and decreases lipid peroxidation in liver and
kidneys of diabetic db/db mice
Biological Research December 2014
Hyperglycaemia modifies oxygen consumption rate, NO synthesis and increases
TBARS levels in mitochondria from the liver and kidneys of diabetic mice,
whereas curcumin may have a protective role against these alterations.
News Medical December 2014
As previous researchers had already demonstrated that curcumin can increase
PIAS3, we used curcumin to increase the PIAS3 levels in mesothelioma cancer
cells. When we exposed these cells to low levels of curcumin, we saw an increase
in the intracellular levels of PIAS3. Furthermore, when we increased PIAS3, the
activation of STAT3 decreased, and, in turn, the cancer cells started growing
much more slowly or stopped growing altogether. So, curcumin affects
mesothelioma cells by increasing the intracellular PIAS3 and therefore
decreasing the STAT3 activation and cancer cell growth.
Benefits You Need To Know About The Ingredient That Helps Make Curry
YouthHealingMag.com December 2014
The active ingredient in turmeric is curcumin, which is known as a powerful
antioxidant. This means it targets dangerous free radicals in the body and
reduces the damage they are able to cause DNA and cells.A study in the Sept 2014
issue of Life Sciences performed an extensive review on curcumin and
wound/injury healing. Researchers found turmeric (curcumin) to have beneficial
properties that appear to speed the wound healing process. These modes of action
include the modulation of inflammation and oxidation, the ability to improve
granulation tissue formation, tissue remodeling, and deposition of collagen.
Curcumin may be able to prevent the oxidation of cholesterol in the body. Since
oxidized cholesterol is what damages blood vessels and builds up in the plaques
that can lead to heart attack or stroke, preventing the oxidation of new
cholesterol may help to reduce the progression of atherosclerosis and diabetic
Health Benefits Of Turmeric
Lifehacker November 2014
Curcumin, contained in turmeric, gives it powerful anti-oxidant properties,
making it a strong agent against cancer. Experts say that turmeric is naturally
anti-inflammatory, and while it's not a one-stop cure against the disease, it
does inhibit neoplastic growth by preventing the formation of tumor blood
vessels. About 30 studies exist that suggest curcumin has anti-tumor effect.
curcumin shown effective in psoriasis
Skin & Allergy News Digital Network November 2014
Studies have shown that curcumin has antiproliferative, antiangiogenic, and
anti-inflammatory effects. In a small study by other investigators, topical
turmeric not only successfully cleared psoriasis lesions, it also suppressed
phosphorylase kinase activity, which is important to keratinocyte proliferation
Can Kill Cancer Cells
Care2.com October 2014
In cancer cells, curcumin, the pigment in the spice turmeric that makes curry
powder yellow, upregulates and activates death receptors (as shown in human
kidney cancer cells, skin cancer cells, and nose and throat cancer cells).
Curcumin can also activate the death machine directly (as shown in lung cancer
and colon cancer). Caspases are so-called “executioner enzymes,” that when
activated, destroy the cancer cell from within by chopping up proteins left and
right—kind of like death by a thousand cuts. And that’s just one pathway.
Curcumin can also affect apoptosis in a myriad other ways, affecting a multitude
of different types of cancer cells. It also tends to leave normal cells alone
for reasons that are not fully understood. Overall, researchers “showed that
curcumin can kill a wide variety of tumor cell types through diverse mechanisms.
And because curcumin can affect numerous mechanisms of cell death at the same
time, it’s possible that cancer cells may not easily develop resistance to
curcumin-induced cell death like they do to most chemotherapy.”
extract can have the potential to boost brain stem cells
TheRawFoodWorld,com October 2014
Curcumin is one of the ingredients in turmeric that exhibits over 150
potentially therapeutic activities and researchers have found it to play a
significant role in improving Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, and stroke damage...Dr.
William LaValley is one of the leading natural medicine cancer physicians. He
actually devoted his time in researching the science of curcumin, which has the
most evidence-based literature supporting its use against cancer of any other
nutrient. He explained, “The curcumin molecule may cause either an increase in
activity of a particular molecular target, or a decrease/inhibition of activity.
Either way, studies repeatedly show that the end result is a potent anti-cancer
MyDigitalFC.com October 2014
Curcumin is the colouring principle of turmeric — it is the element that gives
the herb its yellow hue. Aside from being the most important component of
turmeric, curcumin is responsible for the herb’s anti-inflammatory effects.
Research suggests that curcumin, like cayenne, another medicinal spice found in
chillies, depletes substance P, the pain receptor and neurotransmitter, in the
nerve endings (nociceptors). Research also suggests that curcumin and related
compounds suppress pain through a mechanism similar to conventional coxib-2
inhibitors — the ‘new’ class of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)...Laboratory
and animal studies suggest that curcumin has the potential to prevent and treat
various forms of cancer: colon, prostate, breast, and skin. As a matter of fact,
there has been a substantial amount of research on turmeric’s anti-cancer
potential and the results are promising. In one clinical study, researchers
examined the pain-relieving properties of curcumin and/or whether it could
suppress coxib-2 expression in human colon cancer cells. After exposing colon
cancer cells to curcumin, they found the compound not only subdued cell growth,
but also downgraded the expression of coxib-2 on the basis of a time- and
dose-formatted chart. In addition, researchers observed that curcumin appeared
to be a safe, natural coxib-2 inhibitor in human patients.
Blocking Effects of Turmeric
Care2.com October 2014
Curcumin, present in the Indian spice turmeric, which is used in curry
powder, is one such agent that is currently under clinical investigation for
cancer chemoprevention.” According to their mode of action, chemopreventive
agents are classified into different subgroups: antiproliferatives,
antioxidants, or carcinogen-blockers. Curcumin belongs to all three, given its
multiple mechanisms of action. Curcumin appears to play a role helping to block
every stage of cancer transformation, proliferation, and invasion, and may even
help before carcinogens even get to our cells. A study back in 1987 investigated
the effects of curcumin on the mutagenicity (DNA mutating ability) of several
toxins and found that curcumin was an effective antimutagen against several
environmental and standard mutagenic and cancer-causing substance.
inhibits breast cancer stem cell migration.
Stem Cell Research Therapy October 2014
Curcumin, a plant ployphenol, has several anti-tumor effects and has been shown
to target CSCs. Here, we aimed at evaluating (i) the mechanisms underlying the
aggravated migration potential of breast CSCs (bCSCs), and (ii) the effects of
curcumin in modulating the same...Cumulatively, our findings disclose that
curcumin inhibits bCSC migration by amplifying E-cadherin/beta-catenin negative
Benefits Of Turmeric
Huffingtonpost.com October 2014
Curcumin, the compound in turmeric responsible for that bright hue, is behind a
whole host of the health benefits attributed to the spice. A 2012 study examined
one perk of curcumin in particular: the ability of the extract to prevent heart
attacks among bypass patients. The study followed 121 patients who had bypass
surgery between 2009 and 2011. Three days before surgery through five days
after, half of the patients took curcumin capsules, while the other half took
placebo pills. During their post-bypass hospital stays, more people in the
placebo group experienced a heart attack (30 percent) compared with those in the
curcumin group (13 percent), Reuters reported. While not a substitute for
medication, the researchers pointed out, the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory
properties of curcumin may contribute to as much as a 65 percent lower chance of
heart attack among bypass patients. ... Among people with prediabetes, curcumin
capsules were found to delay the onset of Type 2 diabetes in a 2012 study. Over
nine months, study participants were given either curcumin supplements or
placebo capsules. Just over 16 percent of people taking the placebo pill were
diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes by the end of the study, while no one taking
curcumin was. Again, researchers chalk these results up to the anti-inflammatory
and antioxidant powers of the compound. ... While studies in humans are still in
very early stages, lab and animal studies have shown promising effects of
curcumin in the fight against cancer. Curcumin "interferes with several
important molecular pathways involved in cancer development, growth and spread,"
according to the American Cancer Society, even killing cancer cells in the lab
setting and shrinking tumors and boosting the effects of chemotherapy in
enhances mood in depression research trial
Medicalxpress.com October 2014
Curcumin was significantly more effective than the placebo in improving several
mood-related symptoms in the volunteers. The compound had an even greater
efficacy in a small subgroup of individuals with atypical depression, which can
be characterised by significant weight gain or increased appetite and
hypersomnia. "In animal-based studies curcumin has been consistently shown to
have antidepressant effects and it has been hypothesised that curcumin would
have antidepressant effects in people with major depression," said Dr Lopresti,
who is a clinical psychologist in a private practice. "There have been a few
positive human-based studies investigating the effects of curcumin in
depression. However, this is the first randomised, double blind,
placebo-controlled study and over the longest duration.
Curcumin Blocks the Metastasis of Colon Cancer by a Novel Mechanism
Yumanewsnow.com October 2014
The researchers treated human colon cancer tumor cells with curcumin. "We
discovered that curcumin turns off the active form of cortactin," said
Radhakrishnan, who led the experiments in the lab. "Thus, when cortactin is
turned off, cancer cells lose the ability to move and can't metastasize to other
parts of the body." More specifically, curcumin "turned off" cortactin by
interacting with, and activating, an enzyme known as PTPN1. This enzyme acts as
a phosphatase to remove phosphate groups from cortactin – a process known as "dephosphorylation."
"This effect, essentially known as 'dephosphorylating cortactin' correlated with
reduced ability of colon cancer cells to migrate," Kiela said. "This suggests
that curcumin reduces cancer cells' ability to migrate, meaning the cancer can't
restores sensitivity to retinoic acid in triple negative breast cancer cells
Biomedcentral.com October 2014
Curcumin suppresses the expression level of FABP5 and PPARβ/δ in triple
negative mammary carcinoma cells. By targeting the FABP5/PPARβ/δ pathway,
curcumin prevents the delivery of retinoic acid to PPARβ/δ and suppresses
retinoic acid-induced PPARβ/δ target gene, VEGF-A. Our data demonstrates that
suppression of the FABP5/ PPARβ/δ pathway by curcumin sensitizes retinoic acid
resistant triple negative breast cancer cells to retinoic acid mediated growth
Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and Rheumatoid Arthritis with ashwaganda, curcumin and
Therawfoodworld.com October 2014
It appears that ashwaganda, curcumin, Vitamin D and exercise may help the body
remove amyloid protein, which is thought to cause diseases such as Alzheimer’s,
Parkinson’s Disease, Rheumatoid Arthritis and several other amyloid diseases.
curcumin may protect gut function
Healthcanal.com October 2014
Oral curcumin may be a viable therapy to improve intestinal barrier function
changes caused by consuming a high-fat Western diet, according to a preclinical
study by Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine researchers.
inhibits EMMPRIN and MMP-9 expression through AMPK-MAPK and PKC signaling in PMA
Journal of Translational Medicine October 2014
Curcumin exerts well-known anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects and
probably has a protective role in the atherosclerosis.
fights Alzheimer's disease
Foodconsumer.org October 2014
A study led by scientists at Beijing University of Chinese Medicine in Beijing,
China suggests taking curcumin supplements may help prevent Alzheimer’s
disease...Curcumin is an important supplement that may be used to prevent or
treat cancer, inflammatory diseases, cystic fibrosis, and diabetes mellitus and
many other diseases in addition to Alzheimer's disease.
metastasis blocked by curcumin
Oncologynurseadvisor.com October 2014
Curcumin, derived from the spice turmeric,
blocks the protein cortactin in colon cancer.
promotes turmeric as promising anti-cancer agent
GroundReport.com October 2014
Curcumin could provide an alternate means to the prevention of cancer. The
effect of curcumin as an antioxidant, antibacterial agent and anti-tumor agent
are well documented and it also has a therapeutic or preventive effect on
several other diseases. The study looks at the chemopreventive effects of
curcumin in cancer-prevention with specific focus on curcumin’s effect on the
regulation of cell signaling and genetic pathways. Further, the study notes that
turmeric and curcumin show no significant toxicity at all.
Living with Ruth Holmes: Ancient herb used as treatment
Stroud News and Journal September 2014
The bright yellow pigment contains the active compound curcumin, which is found
in the roots of certain tropical plants like turmeric, and has powerful
anti-inflammatory actions. Just like the non steroidal anti inflammatory
medications, it blocks the formation of the pro-inflammatory prostaglandins, and
leukotrienes (also inflammatory) but does not have the side effects on the
stomach that the anti-inflammatory would. as an anti-inflammatory effect on the
stomach. Curcumin is highly recommended in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid
arthritis as well as post operative inflammation. Curcumin can also be used as
a poultice for inflammatory skin conditions like psoriasis and eczema, this herb
will not treat any pain, as its action is to reduce and prevent further
inflammation from occurring which is what causes the discomfort in the first
glow from kitchen
Curcumin: An antioxidant derived from the turmeric root, its active ingredient
can help calm swelling and reduce wrinkles and other signs of ageing.
could slow down progression of lung lining cancer
Thehealthsite.com September 2014
Curcumin show promise in slowing the progression of mesothelioma, a cancer of
the lung’s lining often linked to asbestos
The Asian Spice, Helps Fight Mesothelioma
Medicaldaily.com September 2014
Curcumin, has long been known for its cancer-inhibiting properties. But when
it's combined with cancer-destroying peptides (bonded chains of amino acids),
the resulting molecule promotes growth of a protein inhibitor known to combat
the progression of mesothelioma.
Spice May Help Slow Mesothelioma Growth
Survivingmesothelioma.com September 2014
Yet another study has demonstrated the potential mesothelioma-fighting
properties of curcumin, an anti-inflammatory polyphenol that is the primary
component in the spice turmeric. The latest study suggests that applying
curcumin along with cancer-fighting peptides may increase the levels of a
protein inhibitor that can slow the progression of mesothelioma.
restores sensitivity to retinoic acid in triple negative breast cancer cells
BMC Cancer September 2014
Treatment of retinoic acid resistant triple negative breast cancer cells with
curcumin sensitized these cells to retinoic acid mediated growth suppression, as
well as suppressed incorporation of BrdU. Further studies demonstrated that
curcumin showed a marked reduction in the expression level of FABP5 and PPARbeta/delta.
We provide evidence that curcumin suppresses p65, a transcription factor known
to regulate FABP5.
boosts testosterone level
ergo-log.com August 2014
Curcumin might be used as an alternative drug for the treatment of male
Theage.com.au August 2014
Turmeric, with its active ingredient curcumin,
are "blockbuster nutrients", according to professor Marc Cohen, head of
Complementary Medicines at RMIT. "Turmeric is a powerful antioxidant which stops
lipid oxidation and is anti-inflammatory," says Cohen, who devoted an entire
chapter to turmeric in his book, Herbs and Natural Supplements: An
Evidence-Based Guide. "It is a possible aid in preventing chronic
degenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease."
the treatment of major depression: a randomised, double-blind, placebo
Newindianexpress.com August 2014
Curcumin, the principal curcuminoid derived from turmeric influences several
biological mechanisms associated with major depression, namely those associated
with monoaminergic activity, immune-inflammatory and oxidative and nitrosative
stress pathways, hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and
neuroprogression, the study said. It is effective for the treatment of
depressive symptoms in individuals with major depressive disorder. Curcumin is
the substance in turmeric which gives the yellow color.
Eat to Beat
aarp.org August 2014
Laboratory studies have found that curcumin—the main ingredient in the spice
turmeric, which gives curry its characteristic yellow color and sizzle—can fight
against cancerous changes in healthy cells as well as slow the growth of
malignant cells. Some evidence suggests that curcumin may also offer protection
against brain tumors.
Cltampa.com August 2014
With more than 50 healing properties, modern research has found that the
effectiveness of turmeric stems from curcumin, a natural compound it contains
that is rich in antioxidants and anti-inflammatory ability. Thousands of animal
and human studies have been conducted on turmeric and curcumin as both a
preventive and curative agent. Current research targets curcumin’s efficacy in
treating some of the world’s biggest health threats including cancer, heart
disease, type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease.A number of curcumin studies
have shown promising results. Curcumin can kill cancer cells in laboratory
dishes and also slows the growth of the surviving cells. Curcumin has been found
to reduce development of several forms of cancer in lab animals and to shrink
animal tumors. On the U.S. National Library of Medicine’s website,
2,840 abstracts are listed about the study and benefits of turmeric and
Mechanism of curcumin resistance to human cytomegalovirus in HELF cells
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine August 2014
Curcumin anti-HCMV effect may possibly be that curcumin concurrently alters
host cell microenviroment and inhibits the HCMV antigen expressions. These
findings may provide a basic understanding of the curcumin anti-HCMV effect
and a novel strategy for further development of curcumin anti-HCMV
the one cooking trick for weight loss success?
Nola.com July 2014
Turmeric, the yellow ground spice you find in curry power, is a superspice
when it comes to health and weight loss because of its active compound
called curcumin. Hundreds of studies have been completed on its
effectiveness against cancer, skin ailments, and lung health, just to name
of few. But when it comes to the battle of the bulge, turmeric extract
suppressed fat tissue growth in rodent models.
Turmeric branded latest superfood to protect against
Business-Standard.com July 2014
Since inflammation is a major
factor in the development of most chronic degenerative diseases including
cardiovascular disease, allergies, type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer's disease,
curcumin's anti-inflammatory power holds great promise in all of these
conditions and many more. Murray said that the antioxidant activity of
curcumin is superior to antioxidant nutrients like vitamin C and E, as they
are effective against only water and fat-soluble pro-oxidants. Curcumin also
helps in preventing LDL cholesterol - one of the worst kind of cholesterol -
from getting oxidised and damaging arteries. and evidence is gaining that
curcumin could also slow down ageing and prevent age-related diseases.
palmbeachillustrated.com July 2014
Curcumin: An active ingredient in turmeric, this antioxidant has shown
anti-cancer effects in laboratory studies and is anti-inflammatory.
Turmeric, Curcumin fights Alzheimer's disease
Foodconsumer.org July 2014
Curcumin one of the active ingredients found in turmeric has been known to
protect against cancer, Alzheimer's disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus,
allergies, arthritis and other chronic diseases. Epidemiological studies
show that incidence of Alzheimer's disease in Southeast Asia where turmeric
is commonly consumed as a spice was 4.4 times lower, compared to that found
in countries where the price is not as commonly used.
modulation of high fat diet-induced atherosclerosis and steatohepatosis in
LDL receptor deficient mice
Sciencedirect.com July 2014
Curcumin also reduced body weight gain and body fat without affecting fat
distribution...However, at a high dose, curcumin suppressed development of
steatohepatosis, reduced fibrotic tissue, and preserved glycogen levels in
liver. Conclusion Curcumin through a series of complex mechanisms,
alleviated the adverse effects of high fat diet on weight gain, fatty liver
development, dyslipidemia, expression of inflammatory cytokines and
atherosclerosis in Ldlr−/− mouse model of human atherosclerosis.
to keep in your medicine cabinet
FoxNews.com July 2014
Curcumin, the active compound in turmeric, is what makes this spice so
special and turmeric happens to be one of the only readily available, edible
forms of it. A 2007 study also showed curcumin to have anticancer
properties, with the potential to fight malignant diseases, diabetes,
allergies, arthritis and Alzheimer’s disease.
Antibiotic Properties Naturally Found in the Kitchen
Globalnews.com July 2014
Curcumin. Turmeric can boost immunity, helps to maintain cholesterol levels,
and can even slow the process of aging. Researchers from the University of
Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center have attested to the benefits.
Evaluation of the Effect of Curcumin Capsules on Glyburide
Therapy in Patients with Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus
Phytotherapy Research July 2014
The co-administration of curcumin capsules with glyburide may be beneficial to
the patients in better glycaemic control. The lipid lowering and antidiabetic
properties of the curcumin show as a potential future drug molecule.
disease-prevention benefits of Indian spices
FoxNews June 2014
Curcumin, derived from a plant that is native to the tropical southeastern
Indian state of Tamil Nadu, also is used "as an adjuvant in chemotherapy,
especially in breast, colon, head and neck cancer and in leukemia. Some
components of curcumin are clinically shown to prevent the formation of
prostate, skin and pancreas cancer cells and brain tumors.
Five Tips To Relieve Joint Pain
SMmirror.com June 2014
Curcumin, is a compound known to interfere with the chemicals that cause
inflammation. Multiple clinical studies have associated curcumin with
anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. In one study, two grams of
curcumin extract provided to subjects was found to provide pain relief that was
equivalent to ibuprofen for pain associated with osteoarthritis of the knee.
How What You Eat Can Help the Spinal Cord Heal Itself
DHA and curcumin appear to invoke several molecular mechanisms that preserved
neurological function in the rats. This is an exciting first step toward
understanding the role that diet plays in protecting the body from degenerative
Why is there Turmeric in my cereal?
BangorDailyNews.com June 2014
Curcumin is actually an antioxidant that has been shown to inhibit cancer cells
in the laboratory, and curcumin slows the growth and spread of some cancers in
some animal studies. Clinical trials are underway to see how it will benefit
humans. Curcumin is being studied for its possible benefit for arthritis,
Alzheimer’s disease and stomach ulcers as well as lowering bad cholesterol.
Curcumin has the ability to modulate genetic activity and expression—both by
destroying cancer cells and by promoting healthy cell function. It also promotes
anti-angiogenesis, meaning it helps prevent the development of additional blood
supply necessary for cancer cell growth. As for its effect on molecular
pathways, curcumin can affect more than 100 of them, once it gets into the cell.
IrishNews.com May 2014
Curcumin, the active ingredient in turmeric. This has been found to have
anti-allergy properties, which inhibit the release of histamine. Commonly used
in Middle Eastern and Asian cuisine as the spice turmeric, curcumin is a
phytochemical with powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions that are
comparable to steroidal and nonsteroidal drugs.
Protective effect of curcumin against heavy metals-induced liver damage
Curcumin protects against the hepatotoxicity induced by heavy metals. • Curcumin
scavenges free radicals induced by heavy metals in liver. • Curcumin’s
hepatoprotective effect involves the heavy metals chelation. • Curcumin promotes
liver protection by upregulating the Nrf2/Keap1/ARE pathway. • Curcumin
analogues or formulations improve hepatoprotection against heavy metals.
Hidden Secrets of an Ancient Spice
Huffingtonpost.com May 2014
Curcumin could provide antidepressant effects. Research on turmeric and diabetes
also looks promising. Scientists have demonstrated that turmeric in the diet may
be helpful in decreasing blood sugar. Traditional health uses of turmeric in
India are to help wound healing and gastrointestinal symptoms. Now researchers
from The University of Nottingham and Ludwig Maximilians University in Munich
have found that curcumin may help reduce inflammation associated with tendinitis.
Both turmeric and curcumin have shown potential to prevent DNA damage and help
DNA repair. That is good news for preventing disease and slowing the aging
anti-inflammatory role of curcumin in obesity and obesity-related
European Journal of Nutrition
School of Life Sciences, College of Natural
Researchers reviewed the last
ten years of curcumin science as it applies to supporting weight
loss and preventing obesity-related disease. Their conclusion is, “The
modulation of several cellular transduction pathways by curcumin has
recently been extended to elucidate the molecular basis for obesity and
obesity-related metabolic diseases. These findings might enable novel
phytochemical treatment strategies as well as curcumin translation to
the clinical practice for the treatment and prevention of
obesity-related chronic diseases. Furthermore, the relatively low cost,
safety and proven efficacy of curcumin make it advisable to include
curcumin as part of healthy diet.”
Inflammation-Induced Obesity and Metabolic Diseases by Curcumin and
Cytokine Research Laboratory, Department of Experimental
Therapeutics, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center,
Houston, Texas 77030
Extensive research within the past two decades has revealed that obesity,
a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, cancer,
and other chronic diseases, is a proinflammatory disease. Several
spices have been shown to exhibit activity against obesity through
antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Among them, curcumin,
a yellow pigment derived from the spice turmeric (an essential
component of curry powder), has been investigated most extensively
as a treatment for obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases.
Curcumin directly interacts with adipocytes, pancreatic cells,
hepatic stellate cells, macrophages, and muscle cells. There, it
suppresses the proinflammatory transcription factors nuclear
factor-kappa B, signal transducer and activators of transcription-3,
and Wnt/β-catenin, and it activates peroxisome proliferator-activated
receptor-γ and Nrf2 cell-signaling pathways, thus leading to the
downregulation of adipokines, including tumor necrosis factor,
interleukin-6, resistin, leptin, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1,
and the upregulation of adiponectin and other gene products. These
curcumin-induced alterations reverse insulin resistance,
hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and other symptoms linked to obesity.
Pharmacological basis for the role of curcumin in chronic
diseases: an age-old spice with modern target- Bokyung Sung
Cytokine Research Laboratory, Department
of Experimental Therapeutics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson
Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA
a yellow pigment in the spice turmeric (also called curry
powder), has been used for centuries as a treatment for
inflammatory diseases. Extensive research within the past two
decades has shown that curcumin mediates its anti-inflammatory
effects through the downregulation of inflammatory transcription
factors (such as nuclear factor κB), enzymes (such as
cyclooxygenase 2 and 5 lipoxygenase) and cytokines (such as
tumor necrosis factor, interleukin 1 and interleukin 6). Because
of the crucial role of inflammation in most chronic diseases,
the potential of curcumin has been examined in neoplastic,
neurological, cardiovascular, pulmonary and metabolic diseases.
The pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of curcumin have been
examined in animals and in humans. Various pharmacological
aspects of curcumin in vitro and in vivo
are discussed in detail.
Rack...Or Medicine Chest?
Nutrition Action Health Letter
"Curcumin protects the brain cells in every animal model of
traumatic brain injury, whether it's stroke, Alzheimer's disease,
Huntington's disease, or mad cow disease," says Gregory Cole,
associate director of the Alzheimer's Disease Center at the University
of California, Los Angeles. "What's unique about Curcumin,"
Cole notes, "is that it binds directly to beta-amyloid deposits in
the brain and reduces their size." Beta-amyloid is a protein
fragment that builds up between brain cells of people with Alzheimer's
Science Daily Magazine
How Plants Protect Us From Disease
foods, beverages, and spices contain healthful compounds that help us fight
harmful inflammation. And, in doing that, these phytochemicals may also reduce
our risk of diseases associated with chronic inflammation, including cancer and
"The list of Curcumin's effects goes on and on, and they're all in
your favor...in addition to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant
properties, Curcumin has several effects that may work in tandem to
protect the brain from plaques in other ways. "If Curcumin had a
single molecular target, it probably would not be as good a drug,"
M.D. Anderson Cancer
Center in Houston. "But because it has multiple targets, it's very
Health: The Fires Within
Chronic inflammation may be the engine that drives many of the most
feared illnesses of middle and old age. This concept is so intriguing
because it suggests a new and possibly much simpler way of warding off
disease. Instead of different treatments for, say, heart disease,
Alzheimer's and colon cancer, there might be a single,
inflammation-reducing remedy that would prevent all three.
Science Daily Magazine
Did evolution give
us inflammatory disease?
that some variants in our genes which could put a person at risk for
inflammatory diseases -- such as multiple sclerosis, Crohn's disease or
rheumatoid arthritis -- have been the target of natural selection over
the course of human history.
'inflammation theory': Immune-system errors linked to more illnesses
"Medical researchers are becoming increasingly convinced that the most
primitive part of the immune system (inflammation), may play a crucial role in
some of the most devastating afflictions of modern humans, including heart
disease, cancer, diabetes and possibly Alzheimer's."
Obesity is Inflammatory Disease, Rat Study Shows
led by Dr David Fairlie from the University of Queensland, Australia,
have found abnormal amounts of an inflammatory protein called PAR2 in
the fat tissues of overweight and obese rats and humans.
PAR2 is also increased on the surfaces of human immune cells by
common fatty acids in the diet. When obese rats on a diet high in sugar
and fat were given a new oral drug that binds to PAR2, the
inflammation-causing properties of this protein were blocked, as were
other effects of the high-fat and high-sugar diet, including obesity
evolution give us inflammatory disease?
American Journal of Human Genetics
Researchers demonstrate that some variants in our genes that could put a
person at risk for inflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis,
Crohn's disease or rheumatoid arthritis, have been the target of natural
selection over the course of human history. The findings suggest that in
the past these variants rose in frequency in the human population to
help protect us against viruses, bacteria and other pathogens. But now
in our modern world, the environment and exposure to pathogens has
changed, and the genetic variants that were originally meant to protect
us, now make an autoimmune reaction more likely.
at M.D. Anderson Cancer Center
The University of Texas, MD
Curcumin has been shown to prevent a large of number of cancers
in animal studies. Laboratory data indicate that Curcumin can
inhibit tumor initiation, promotion, invasion, angiogenesis and
Epidemiological evidence indicate that
incidence of certain cancers is less in people who consume Curcumin
than in those who do not. Recent evidence indicates that, besides chemopreventive activity, Curcumin may also be effective in the
treatment of cancer. Curcumin is currently under investigtion for its anti-cancer and
anti-inflammatory effects at M. D. Anderson Cancer Center and other
Scientific American Magazine
An ingredient in
curry shows promise for treating Alzheimer's, cancer and other diseases.
"A chapter in a forthcoming book, for instance, describes the
biologically active components of Turmeric--Curcumin and related
compounds called Curcuminoids--as having antioxidant,
anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial and antifungal properties,
with potential activity against cancer, diabetes, arthritis, Alzheimer's
disease and other chronic maladies. And in 2005 nearly 300 scientific
and technical papers referenced Curcumin in the National Library
of Medicine's PubMed database, compared with about 100 just five years
earlier. Scientists who sometimes jokingly label
themselves Curcuminologists are drawn to the compound both
because of its many possible valuable effects in the body and its
apparent low toxicity. They ponder how the spice or its derivatives
might be used, not just as a treatment but as a low-cost preventive
medication for some of the most feared ailments. As a treatment, it also
has some enticing attributes. Because Curcumin targets so many
biological pathways, it could have benefits for cancer therapy:
malignant cells may be slow to acquire resistance to it and so might
have to go through multiple mutations to avoid the substance's
Previous news and studies on Curcumin and Turmeric.
Medical studies and university clinical trials on Curcumin and Turmeric.
National Library of Medicine
Worlds Healthiest Foods
Science News Daily
Scientific journals with published studies of Curcumin and Turmeric.
|American Journal of Physiology - 277: 320-29
Age - 18:167-9
Agents and Actions - 28:298-303
Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - 13(2):245-249
Alternative Medicine Review - 4(3):178-88, 6(2):167-187, 7(5):404-9
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition - 64(5):761-766
American Journal of Physiology: Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 284(1):85-95,
American Surgeon - 64(1):47-51
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences - 973:250-4
Anticancer Drugs - 8(5):470-81
Anti Cancer Research - 11: 593-596, 19(5A):3675-80, 20(3a):1733-8,
What is Turmeric-Curcumin.com?
is our company and website, dedicated since 2000 to offering the highest quality
Curcumin 95% extract,
the best customer
lowest prices in the industry, and none of the marketing hype. Unlike other suppliers, we do not sell 500 products, or even 5
remain dedicated and focused on the most powerful, healthful and important
compound in botanical medicine; Curcumin, concentrated and standardized
to 95% purified extract. This extraordinary spice extract has generated such
interest that universities and medical centers around the world are continually conducting
research studies and discovering new benefits, with multiple ongoing human clinical
trials. Due to it's potent antioxidant power, Curcumin has been recognized as
one of the most promising food-derived compounds in fighting a variety of
degenerative diseases. The scientific evidence remains overwhelming, demonstrating
the many health benefits via in vitro, in vivo and human clinical studies.
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